How to design Jobs-to-be-done based Customer Journeys
The first step towards a Jobs-to-be-done based Customer Journey is to move away from the five generic ACCRA steps mentioned above. They might be useful in other contexts, but are too broad to reflect customer reality and, in fact, are purely from a company’s perspective. The steps are not written as needs of customers but as inside-out conceptual steps. But to turn Customer Journeys inspirational and innovative the steps need to be written from the customer’s perspective. A Customer Journey based on Jobs-to-be-done does exactly this: It maps the need sequence evolution of customers along the whole process. It all starts with what we call the Jobs-to-be-done Hierarchy.
The Jobs-to-be-done Hierarchy to define the right level of abstraction
To define the right level of abstraction and as a first step in applying Jobs-to-be-done, we start by building the Jobs-to-be-done Hierarchy as an initial hypothesis. Here is a simplified version of the hierarchy to visualize the logic (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2: Jobs-to-be-done Hierarchy
The Bigger Why includes more aspirational Jobs that customers have (like to reward oneself or to realize one’s dreams), the Core Jobs are the set of customer Jobs relevant for a specific business intention, while the bottom Job steps are the concrete steps customers go through to achieve the Core Job.
The Core Jobs are those Jobs customer really want to achieve when they go through the purchase or usage process, the Customer Journey. There can be more than one, but often one Core Jobs is enough.
The Job Steps are written from a customer’s perspective, i.e. there is no step “Awareness” but rather “to form a desire” or “to build an intention”. Customers do not want to get aware of solutions, let alone companies. They want holes, not drills. The Job Steps at the bottom cover the whole customer journey, e.g., “to gather information about products” or “to get ideas” and so along the actual journey of customers. Compare the sequence of steps of the Job “to get a new look” – where buying new clothes is a possible solution – versus “to stay informed about world events” – where subscribing to a newspaper is an option. The steps of these two hierarchies will look very different.
In other words: A Jobs-to-be-done based Customer Journey maps the same thing as established Customer Journeys, but strictly from the point of view of the customer and in a solution-agnostic manner.